Nutrition Health Review

WINTER 2017

Nutrition Health Review provides consumers updates on the latest medical research, news, trends, and products in nutrition and healthy living.

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Winter 2017 • Volume 114 7 Want to Keep Your New Year's Resolutions? Get More Sleep A ccording to sleep expert, Cathy Goldstein, MD, Professor of Neurology in the Sleep Disorders Centers at the University of Michigan, sleep is a key component many people neglect when striving to make improvements in just about any part of their lives. "We definitely take sleep as a luxury; it's not," says Dr. Goldstein. Whether intentional or a result of external factors, shortchanging on shut-eye influences a host of bodily functions crucial for good health. Some individuals, Goldstein notes, aren't aware they're lacking in sleep—or they knowingly sacrifice it to accommodate work or leisure demands. As a result, "they become used to this poor level of performance." She explained how poor or low-quality sleep hinders some common resolutions: "I want to eat healthier." The pitfalls of eating junk food are twofold when sleep is in short supply. Night owls are more likely to snack in the evening (either by raiding the pantry or hitting a drive-thru) and those who eat during the nighttime tend to weigh more. Whether you are a night owl or not, people who aren't getting enough sleep also are apt to make poor meal choices during the day. Sleep restriction decreases one's levels of leptin (the hormone that makes you feel full) and boosts ghrelin, which collectively increase appetite and alter food choices in a negative way. "It really changes the profile of what you eat to high carbohydrate, salty, sugary snacks," Goldstein says. "I want to exercise more." Who feels like hitting the gym when they're exhausted? Beyond a lack of mental motivation, the physical payoffs of exercise are reduced when your sleep routine is out of whack. Researchers have found adequate sleep improves speed, strength, and endurance in athletes. A 2013 Northwestern University study found the connection benefits everyone: "The less sleep you get, the shorter your exercise duration the next day is going to be," says Goldstein. "I want to get a promotion." Good employees are alert, motivated, and cheerful. Those qualities, Goldstein says, "all are impaired by sleep loss." They also spur what she dubs "cyber loafing" -- that is, mindlessly scrolling social media or entertainment sites while on the clock. The risks aren't relevant only to those seeking to climb the corporate ladder. A well-rested boss is probably a better worker, too. Notes Goldstein: "There is some research saying sleep-deprived people in managerial roles are less ethical and not as nice." "I want to improve my relationship." Working through any interpersonal issues can be a challenge on its own, but fatigue hinders the healing process. "A person's mood is going to be worse when they don't sleep," Goldstein says. Those with obstructive sleep apnea, a potentially serious disorder in which breathing is interrupted during the night, often "have a really short fuse; they're much quicker to anger," Goldstein says. "But once we get their sleep quality improved, their social interactions are markedly improved." "I want to quit smoking." Sleep deprivation is tied to higher rates of nicotine dependence, Goldstein says. Researchers aren't exactly sure why, but she suspects much of it relates to nicotine's "activating" properties to help users relax or concentrate, among other things. What she and other experts do know: Low sleep reserves affect your ability to make good decisions. That includes whether to use harmful tobacco products, even if you're aware of their detrimental effects. Source: Materials provided by University of Michigan Health System. FAST FACT! According to a Finnish study, eating chocolate reduced stress in expectant mothers. Even more fascinating, the babies of these chocolate-eating moms smiled more than those of non- chocolate-eating parents! Source: Early Human D evelopment 2004;76 visualize Eating the Foods You Crave A ccording to researchers, picturing yourself indulging in the foods you crave most may actually decrease your desire to eat them. In one experiment, 51 participants first imagined eating either three or 33 M&Ms before being given access to a bowl of the candy. Those who imagined eating more M&Ms ate 60% less of the candy, on average. S ource: Thought for food: imagined consumption reduces actual consumption. Science 2010.

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